Teks naratif pada dasarnya adalah teks yang menceritakan sesuatu (Cory, 2002). Menurut Derewianka (dalam Mirjam Anugerahwati, 2004) teks naratif bertujuan untuk menghibur, untuk mendapat dan mempertahankan perhatian pembaca / pendengar cerita. Teks naratif bertujuan juga untuk mendidik, memberitahu, menyampaikan refleksi tentang pengalaman pengarangnya, dan yang tak kurang pentingnya ialah untuk mengembangkan imajinasi pembaca / pendengar. Teks naratif umumnya bersifat imajiner, tetapi ada juga teks naratif yang bersifat faktual, yaitu menceritakan kejadian yang sesungguhnya.
Ada beberapa jenis teks naratif yang sering dijumpai dalam kehidupan sehari - hari, misalnya dongeng, legenda, cerita misteri, cerita horor, roman, dan cerita pendek
Teks naratif terdiri dari tiga bagian utama:
(1) Orientation yaitu bagian dimana pengarang melukiskan dunia untuk ceritanya, dibagian inilah diperkenalkan dimana dan kapan peristiwa terjadi serta para tokoh
(2) Complication yaitu bagian dimana tokoh utama menghadapi rintangan dalam mencapai cita - citanya, bagian dimana komplik mulai terjadi
(3) Resolution yaitu bagian permasalahan yang dihadapi tokoh utama diselesaikan. Pada bagian ini mempunyai dua kecendrungan, yaitu mengakhiri cerita dengan kebahagiaan (happy ending) dan atau mengakhiri cerita dengan kesedihan (sad ending), tetapi ada juga teks naratif yang membiarkan pembaca/ pendengar menebak akhir cerita.
(4) Reorientation yaitu bagian penutup dari cerita.
Contoh Narrative Text
The Smartest Parrot
Once upon time, a man had a wonderful parrot. There was no other parrot like it. The parrot could say every word, except one word. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The name of the place was Catano.
The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word.
At the first, the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Although he tried hard to teach, the parrot would not say it. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano.
One day, after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano, the man really got very angry. He could not bear it. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Then he continued to humble; “You know, I will cut the chicken for my meal. Next it will be your turn, I will eat you too, stupid parrot”. After that he left the chicken house.
The next day, the man came back to the chicken house. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. There were three death chickens on the floor. At the moment, the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”.
Analysis the Generic Structure
Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. In that parrot story, the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. A man and his parrot took place once time.
Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. It will show the crisis, rising crisis and climax of the story. In the parrot story, paragraph 2, 3, 4 are describing the complication. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. To fix this problem, the man attempted to teach the bird. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication.
Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story, readers see the problem is finished. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. That was the smartest parrot.
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